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National Launch

17 فیصد بچے سکولوں سے باہر 41 فیصد سرکاری سکول بیت الخلاسے محروم - Jehan Pakistan

17 فیصد بچے سکولوں سے باہر 41 فیصد سرکاری سکول بیت الخلاسے محروم
آزاد جموں کشمیر، گلگت بلتستان اور پنجاب میں داخلوں میں 2 فیصد سالانہ اضافہ، اساتذہ کی حاضری 89 فیصد ریکارڈ کی گئی

Source: http://www.jehanpakistan.com/epaper/epaper.php?edition=islamabad&date=110220

 

 

17 فیصد بچے تعلیم سے محروم - Express News

25 فیصد سرکاری 13 فیصد نجی سکولوں کی چار دیواری نہیں

Source: https://www.express.com.pk/epaper/Index.aspx?Issue=NP_ISB

6 سے 16 سال کی عمر کے 17 فیصد بچے سکولوں سے باہر ہیں، رپورٹ - Nawa-i-Waqt

آزاد کشمیر، گلگت، پنجاب میں بچوں کے اندراج میں 1 سے 2 فیصد سالانہ اضافہ رکارڈ

Source: 
https://www.nawaiwaqt.com.pk/E-Paper/islamabad/2020-02-11/page-1

 

تعلیم کے اہداف کے لئے غیر معمولی اقدامات کرنا ہوں گے، سروے رپورٹ - Jang News

حکومتی مثبت اقدامات کے باوجود 16 سال تک کے 17 فیصد بچے ابھی بھی سکولوں سے باہرہیں

Source: https://jang.com.pk/

سہولیات کا فقدان 75 فیصد تعلیمی ادارے بجلی 37 فیصد صاف پانی سے محروم - Dunya News

شہری و دیہی علاقوں کے 12 فیصد سکولز میں واش روم، 37 فیصد میں چار دیواری، 38 فیصد میں پلے گراؤنڈز نہیں

Source: https://e.dunya.com.pk/index.php?e_name=ISL

Girls education must for socio-economic uplift: Zubaida - The Frontier Post

ISLAMABAD: Minister for Defense Production Zubaida Jalal Khan  Monday said that socio-economic development linked with the girls’ education and government was committed to provide education to women.

Addressing the Report Launching ceremony of ASER Survey 2019, she said that education was major defense and gate-way to the socio-economic development of the country.

The ceremony was also attended by Minister for education Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) Muhammad Ibrahim Sanai, Chief Executive Officer – Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA) Baela Jamil, MNA Mehnaz Akbar Aziz, Chairman National Commission for Human Development and others.

Speaking on the occasion, she said that education was the basic right of every citizen under the Article 25 A of the constitutions.

Commenting on the issues raised in the ASER report especially in the rural areas like missing facilities at schools, lack of transportation for girls, wash rooms at schools and enrollment in schools, she said that the government would resolve these challenges on priority.

She underlined the need of using modern technology for the promotion of education by the government and concerned departments to achieve the 100 percent literacy rate.

The government has endorsed and was committed to meeting the SDGs by 2030 to end poverty with an educationally entitled society as elaborated in SDG 4 goal, its seven targets and three means of implementation.

The provinces have aligned their sector plans to SDG 4 (12 years of schooling) and Article 25 A, she added.

Minister for Education GB, Muhammad Ibrahim said that consistent efforts, hard work and commitment were needed to achieve the task.

He said that GB government had done a lot for girls’ education adding “We have ensured provision of books and uniform in the GB schools”.

He said that technology was effective tools for promoting  education.

According to the survey, trends in learning levels in language and arithmetic from 2014 to 2019 show an improvement from 13 to 17 percent for grade 5; however, children continue to struggle in grade 3 due to low grasp of foundational skills in basic literacy and numeracy.

Despite the recent focus of the federal and provincial governments on enrolment drives to honor Article 25 A, 17 percent children aged 6-16 still remain out of school, according to the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2019 National (rural) survey launched on Monday.

In contrast, the survey revealed that in 20 urban centers across Pakistan, only 6% children were out of school.

With 40% of the population residing in urban areas, this presents an important opportunity to accelerate universal access for the urban 5-16 year olds, whilst simultaneously focusing on rural areas.

Education targets can be met through extra ordinary resolve and actions by the state to guarantee a constitutional fundamental right.

AJK, GB and Punjab have recorded a slim annual increase in enrolment between1% to 2%. ASER rural results over the years highlight a decline in the number of children going to private sector schools; 23% children of age 6-16 were enrolled in private sector in 2019 compared to 30% in 2014.

The shift to government/public sector schools has increased the enrolment share from 70 % (2014) to 77% in 2019. This edge must be maintained with persistent state actions for quality facilities.

According to the rural report, student competencies in learning Language, English, and Arithmetic have improved 59% of the children from Class V read Class II level story text in Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto; in English. Arithmetic learning levels have also improved since 2018; now 57% of class V children could do a two-digit division, pegged at second grade curriculum. New questions on time recognition along with word problems on addition and multiplication were also added for the first time. 60% of children in class 5 could recognize time correctly, 60% could solve addition word problem and 53% could solve multiplication word problem.

Private sector schools report better learning outcomes and boys outperform girls. In comparison, the learning levels in urban areas are considerably higher than rural areas across all three competencies.

Overall, 70% of the children enrolled in grade 5 in all urban districts can read a story in the local language, 67% can read sentences in English while 66% can do division with reduced gender gaps.

The ASER report highlights school functioning across every district in Pakistan. Teachers’ attendance in government and private schools stood same at 89% closing the gap, on the day of the survey. Whilst private school teachers were reported to have better qualifications at graduate levels (40%) compared to 33% in improvement schools; however, for MA/MSC qualifications, a larger percentage of public sector teachers have a higher qualification than private counterparts.

Source: https://thefrontierpost.com/girls-education-must-for-socio-economic-uplift-zubaida/

 

Education (sub)standards: Nearly half of 5th graders can't read 2nd grade English, report finds - Dawn News

About 45 per cent of children studying in the fifth standard in rural areas cannot read English sentences meant for students of Class II, the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) revealed on Monday.

The report was launched by Education Minister Shafqat Mehmood and Planning Ministry's Deputy Chairman Mohammad Jehanzeb Khan at a ceremony in Islamabad.

ASER records data from rural and urban households on learning and other critical indicators alongside schools producing internationally comparable data on the acquisition of foundational lower primary skills, holding national and global-level institutions accountable for delivering on the sustainable development goals level 4 promises.

In its report for the year 2019 released today, ASER further found that only 59pc of fifth grade students in rural areas can read stories in Urdu and other local languages including Sindhi and Pashto, which are included in the syllabus of the second standard. Furthermore, only 57pc of grade five students can solve a two-digit division problem meant for pupils in Class II.

The report further said that 60pc of the students in the fifth standard can tell time correctly and solve addition word problems. Only 53pc can solve multiplication word problems.

Students enrolled in private-sector schools show better learning outcomes, the report said, adding that male students tend to outperform females.

The statistics gathered from surveys held in urban areas are considerably better than those of rural areas. According to Aser, 70pc of fifth grade students in urban areas can read a story in Urdu and/or other local languages meant for second grade students. About 67pc of fifth standard students can read English sentences, while 66pc can solve division problems which are included in the syllabus for Class II.

The figures, according to the report, show an improvement in learning skills of fifth class students from 13pc to 17pc between 2014 and 2019.

Enrollment of students between the ages of six to 16, in government or public sector schools in 2019 has increased to 77pc, in comparison to 70pc in 2014, marking a decline in the number of students being enrolled in private sector schools. The report advises that "this edge must be maintained with persistent state actions for quality facilities". The figures, however, do not indicate if there has been an increase or decrease in the number of students enrolled every year.

No improvement was recorded in Early Childhood Education, as enrollment rate remains 39pc since 2014.

Teachers' qualification

According to the report, the percentage of teachers with a graduate degree in private sector schools was 40pc as compared to 33pc in government or public sector schools. The number of teachers with a Masters degree was higher in government schools, the report said, but did not mention statistics.

The attendance of teachers in both private and public sector schools stood at 89pc.

School facilities

Not surprisingly, it was revealed that private sector schools were better equipped and provided more facilities than government or public sector institutions.

Around 87pc of private sector schools for primary students have a boundary wall, compared to 75pc of government schools, the report said.

A huge gap was found in the number of schools that had functional toilets: 89pc of private sector schools had functioning bathrooms as compared to 59pc of government schools.

"The government must make missing facilities an integral part of school-based budgets rather than as a separate budget head," the report suggested.

Source: https://www.dawn.com/news/1533623/education-substandards-nearly-half-of-5th-graders-cant-read-2nd-grade-english-report-finds

 

In Pakistan, primary students struggle in literacy, numeracy: ASER - The Express Tribune

ISLAMABAD: 

Trends in learning levels in language and arithmetic have shown an improvement from 13% to 17% for students in Grade five. However, children continue to struggle at lower levels to grasp foundational skills in basic literacy and numeracy.

This was stated in the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2019 National (rural) survey of Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA). Minister for Federal Education and Vocational Training Shafqat Mehmood launched the report on Monday along with Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Muhammad Jehanzeb Khan at a ceremony in Islamabad.

According to the report, which reviewed trends and scores from 2014 to 2019, student competencies in learning languages, English, and arithmetic have improved over the years.

At least 59% of children from grade-V can read a grade-II story text in their respective medium of education such as Urdu, Sindhi and Pashto. However, in English, only 55% of the surveyed grade-V students could read sentences meant for students of second grade.

Arithmetic learning levels have also improved since 2018, the report said, adding, now 57% of students of grade-V can do a two-digit division, pegged at second-grade curriculum. New questions on time recognition along with word problems on addition and multiplication were also added for the first time in the survey.

At least 60% of children in grade-V can recognise time correctly, 60% can solve addition word problems and 53% can solve a multiplication word problem, the ASER survey said.

Private sector schools report better learning outcomes and boys outperform girls. In comparison, the learning levels in urban areas were considerably higher than rural areas across all three competencies.

However, the report said, that only 55% of the surveyed grade-V students can read sentences from a grade-II English textbook.

Despite the recent focus of the federal and provincial governments on enrolment drives to implement Article 25-A of the Constitution — which requires the provision of universal elementary education — 17% of children between the ages of six and 16 remain out-of-school, the survey said.

In contrast, a survey in 20 urban centres across Pakistan reveals that only 6% of children were out-of-school. With 40% of the population residing in urban areas, this presents an important opportunity to accelerate universal access for the urban five-16-year-olds, whilst simultaneously focusing on rural areas, the report suggested

Education targets can be met through extraordinary resolve and actions by the state to guarantee a constitutionally fundamental right, it said.

Teacher competencies

The ASER report highlights teachers’ attendance in government and private schools stood the same at 89% closing the gap, on the day of the survey. Whilst private school teachers were reported to have better qualifications at graduate levels — 40% compared to 33% in government schools.

However, for MA, MSc and other post-graduate qualifications, a larger percentage of public sector teachers had higher qualification than their private school counterparts.

Multi-grade classrooms highlight teacher shortages, it said.

ASER 2019, rural findings reveal that 46% of government and 26% of private schools impart multi-grade teaching at grade two. In grade-VIII, multi-grade teaching stood at 18% in both government and private schools. A teacher taking classes of multiple grades in government middle schools has risen from 5% in 2018 to 18% in 2019.

Private schools lose students

The ASER rural results over the years highlight a decline in the number of children going to private sector schools. Around 23% of children up to 16-years-of-age were enrolled in the private sector in 2019, compared with 30% in 2014. The shift to government schools has increased the enrolment share from 70% in 2014, to 77% in 2019.

This edge must be maintained with persistent state actions for quality facilities, the report stated.

Early Childhood Education (ECE) has been historically tracked by ASER Pakistan. From 2014 when ECE enrolment stood at 39%, it has not registered significant improvement (39% in 2019), although ECE was critical for foundational learning readiness in literacy and numeracy.

Better school facilities in private sector

The survey showed that 87% of private primary schools had boundary-walls as compared to 75% of government primary schools.

Functional toilets were available in 59% public and 89% private primary schools, the report said adding that safe and conducive environments do affect learning positively across public and private schools. The government must make missing facilities an integral part of school-based budgets rather than as a separate budget head.

Health and disability

The ASER survey included a section on health and disability of students, in which headteachers and teachers were asked questions about specially-abled children and appropriate facilities in their respective schools.

Around 22.2% of the surveyed government schools reported having specially-abled children, compared with 16.6% of private schools. Of the types of disability prevalence in schools, the highest reported was physical (41.4%) followed by behavioural (12.1%) and multiple (11.8%).

The report said that only 2.1% of government and 2% of private schools had ramps for wheelchairs and only 3.9% of government and 7% of private schools had disability-friendly toilets. 

Published in The Express Tribune, February 11th, 2020.

Source: https://tribune.com.pk/story/2154226/1-pakistan-primary-students-struggle-literacy-numeracy-aser/

 

Learning levels: Trends show improvement - Business Recorder

Trends in learning levels in language and arithmetic from 2014 to 2019 show an improvement from 13% to 17% for grade 5; however, children continue to struggle in grade 3 due to low grasp of foundational skills in basic literacy and numeracy. Despite the recent focus of the federal and provincial governments on enrolment drives to honor Article 25 A, 17% children aged 6-16 still remain out of school.

These findings were made public in the report of Pakistan's largest-annual citizen-led household based ASER Survey 2019 – the ninth ASER Survey report in a row launched in Islamabad on Monday February 10, 2020

The survey in 20 urban centres across Pakistan reveals that only 6% children are out of school. With 40% of the population residing in urban areas, this presents an important opportunity to accelerate universal access for the urban 5-16 year olds, whilst simultaneously focusing on rural areas. Education targets can be met through extra ordinary resolve and actions by the state to guarantee a constitutional fundamental right.

ASER is a flagship programme of Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA) implemented in partnership with civil society organizations; 10,000 volunteer citizens visited 155 districts in 4546 villages to implement the ASER survey from 92,008 households and 255,266 children of age 3-16 years. For the year 2019, the ASER rural survey assessed 202,648 children of 5-16 year age cohort in Language (Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto), English, and Arithmetic competencies mapped to grade 2 curriculum and textbooks. In 9 districts, the survey was successfully conducted through androids, testing for at scale survey solutions that are paperless, efficient and transparent.

The report annually informs about the progress and challenges for Article 25 A of the constitution extending education for ALL 5-16 year old children since 2010 and for tracking progress towards SDG 4, measuring learning at the lower primary level. Released jointly by Asad Umer – Federal Minister for Planning, Development, Reforms and Special Initiatives, Shafqat Mahmood, Federal Minister for the Ministry of Education & Professional Training, Parliamentarians across political parties and media experts, there was a unanimous consensus for urgent actions to be taken for a future based on an educated Pakistan to halt the protracted devaluing of its social capital.-PR

Source: https://www.brecorder.com/2020/02/11/569760/learning-levels-trends-show-improvement/

 

 

ASER Survey 2019 shows 1pc increase in enrolment 17pc children from 6-16 years still out of school - Pakistan Observer

Islamabad

Trends in learning levels in language and arithmetic from 2014 to 2019 showed an improvement from 13pc to 17pc for grade 5, however, children continued to struggle in grade 3 due to low grasp of foundational skills in basic literacy.
These findings were made public in Pakistan’s largest-annual citizen-led household based Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) Survey 2019– the ninth ASER Survey report launched here on Monday.
Released jointly by parliamentarians and media experts, there was a unanimous consensus for urgent action to halt the protracted devaluing of its social capital. ASER the flagship programme of Idara-e-Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA) implemented in partnership with civil society organizations.
Around 10,000 volunteer citizens visited 155 districts in 4546 villages to implement the ASER survey from 92,008 households and 255,266 children of age 3-16 years.
For the year 2019, the ASER rural survey assessed 202,648 children of 5-16 year age cohort in Language (Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto), English, and Arithmetic competencies mapped to grade 2 curriculum and textbooks.
In 9 districts, the survey was successfully conducted through androids, testing for at scale survey solutions that are paperless, efficient and transparent. According to the report, despite recent focus of the federal and provincial governments on enrolment drives to honour Article 25-A, 17pc children aged 6-16 still remained out of school. In contrast, the survey in 20 urban centres across Pakistan reveals only 6pc children were out of school.
With 40pc population residing in urban areas, this presents an important opportunity to accelerate universal access for the urban 5-16 year olds, whilst simultaneously focusing on rural areas. The report annually informs about the progress and challenges for Article 25-A of the Constitution extending Education for All 5-16 year old children since 2010 and for tracking progress towards SDG 4, measuring learning at the lower primary level.
The ministers said the government had also endorsed and was committed to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030 to end poverty with an educationally entitled society as elaborated in SDG 4 goal, its seven targets and three means of implementation.
The provinces have aligned their sector plans to SDG-4 (12 years of schooling) and Article 25 A, this was told by the provincial representatives. AJK, GB and Punjab have recorded a slim annual increase in enrolment between 1pc to 2pc.
ASER rural results over the years highlight a decline in the number of children going to private sector schools; 23pc children of age 6-16 are enrolled in private sector in 2019compared to 30pc in 2014.
The shift to government/public sector schools has increased the enrolment share from 70pc (2014) to 77pc in 2019. This edge must be maintained with persistent state actions for quality facilities.
Early Childhood Education (ECE) has been historically tracked by ASER Pakistan. From 2014 when ECE enrolment stood at 39pc, it has not registered significant improvement (39pc in 2019), although ECE is critical for foundational learning readiness in literacy and numeracy.
ASER is a citizen led learning accountability movement. Learning levels of children both in school and out of school, are assessed at their homes through specific language and arithmetic tools.
The same approach is used for all children between the ages of 5 to 16. For the first time, in 2019, arithmetic tool covered three digit number recognition from 100-200 along with word problems on addition and multiplication.

Source: https://pakobserver.net/aser-survey-2019-shows-1pc-increase-in-enrolment-17pc-children-from-6-16-years-still-out-of-school/

 

17pc children still out-of-school: Report - The Nation

ISLAMABAD-The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) launched on Monday said despite of government efforts to increase enrolment in educational institutions, 17 percent children are still out-of-school.

The report launched also said that children enrolled in grade 3 continue to struggle due to low grasp of foundational skills in basic literacy and numeracy, despite trends in learning levels in language and arithmetic from 2014 to 2019 show an improvement from 13 per cent to 17 per cent for grade 5.

About Early Childhood Education (ECE), the report said that from 2014 when ECE enrolment stood at 39 per cent, it has not registered significant improvement (39% in 2019), although ECE is critical for foundational learning readiness in literacy and numeracy.

However, on the positive side ASER rural results showed a decline in the number of children going to private sector schools; 23 per cent children of age 6-16 are enrolled in private sector in 2019 compared to 30 per cent in 2014.

The shift to government/public sector schools has increased the enrolment share from 70 per cent (2014) to 77 per cent in 2019. This edge must be maintained with persistent state actions for quality facilities.

According to the rural report, student competencies in learning language, English, and Arithmetic have improved: 59 per cent of the children from Class V read Class II level story text in Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto; in English, only 55 per cent of the surveyed Class V students could read sentences, meant for students at second grade.

Arithmetic learning levels have also improved since 2018; now 57 per cent of class V children could do a two-digit division, pegged at second grade curriculum. New questions on time recognition along with word problems on addition and multiplication were also added for the first time.

Sixty per cent of children in class 5 could recognise time correctly, 60 per cent could solve addition word problem and 53 per cent could solve multiplication word problem. Private sector schools report better learning outcomes and boys outperform girls. In comparison, the learning levels in urban areas are considerably higher than rural areas across all three competencies.

Overall, 70 per cent of the children enrolled in grade 5 in all urban districts can read a story in the local language, 67 per cent can read sentences in English while 66 per cent can do division with reduced gender gaps.

In contrast, the survey in 20 urban centres across Pakistan reveals that only 6 per cent children are out of school. With 40 per cent of the population residing in urban areas, this presents an important opportunity to accelerate universal access for the urban 5-16 year olds, while simultaneously focusing on rural areas. Education targets can be met through extra ordinary resolve and actions by the state to guarantee a constitutional fundamental right.

These findings were made public in the report of ASER Survey 2019. Over 10,000 volunteer citizens visited 155 districts in 4,546 villages to implement the ASER survey from 92,008 households and 255,266 children of age 3-16 years.

For the year 2019, the ASER rural survey assessed 202,648 children of 5-16 year age cohort in language (Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto), English, and Arithmetic competencies mapped to grade 2 curriculum and textbooks. In nine districts, the survey was successfully conducted through androids, testing for at scale survey solutions that are paperless, efficient and transparent.

Report said teachers’ attendance in government and private schools stood same at 89 per cent closing the gap, on the day of the survey. Whilst private school teachers were reported to have better qualifications at graduate levels (40%) compared to 33 per cent in government schools; however, for MA/MSC qualifications, a larger percentage of public sector teachers have a higher qualification than private counterparts.

However, multi-grade classrooms highlight teacher shortages as rural findings reveal 46 per cent of government and 26 per cent of private schools impart multi-grade teaching at grade 2 level; whilst in grade 8, multi-grade teaching stood at 18 per cent in both government and private schools; multi-grade in government middle schools has risen from 5 per cent (2018) to 18 per cent in 2019.

Source: https://nation.com.pk/11-Feb-2020/17pc-children-still-out-of-school-report

 

 

Quality of education remains a concern in rural districts report - Dawn News

ISLAMABAD: Education quality remains a concern in rural districts in Pakistan, with 41pc of surveyed fifth graders unable to read a story in Urdu and 45pc unable to read sentences in English, according to a report launched on Monday.

The Annual Status of Education Report was compiled and launched by Idara-i-Taleem-i-Aagahi. It is based on a survey conducted in 155 rural districts covering 92,008 households.

The launch was attended by Minister for Defence Production Zubaida Jalal, MNA Mehnaz Akber Aziz, Gilgit-Baltistan Education Minister Mohammad Ibrahim Snai, Mosharraf Zaidi, Baela Raza Jamil, Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Dr Jahanzeb Khan, Department for International Development Deputy Head Kemi Williams, Oxfam country head Mohammad Qazilbash and others.

The participants also held a discussion on how to improve the education sector.

The report said that 41pc of students in grade five could not read a second grade level story in Urdu, Sindh or Pashto, while 45pc of fifth graders could not read second grade level sentences.

Says 41pc of fifth graders unable to read Urdu story, 45pc unable to read English sentences

The report said that 84pc of third graders could not read second grade level sentences, and 43pc of fifth grade students could do two digit division.

But, the report added, although the level of quality is alarming there has been improvement in learning outcomes compared to previous years.

It said that 17pc of children were reported to be out of school in 2019, the same as the previous year. A survey of 20 urban centres across Pakistan found that just 6pc of children were out of school.

With 40pc of the population living in urban areas, this presents an opportunity to accelerate universal access for urban five to 16 year olds while also focusing on rural areas.

The report also pointed out missing facilities in schools, stating that 39pc of primary schools in Pakistan do not have usable water facilities for students and teachers, 41pc do not have usable toilets and 56pc do not have computer labs.

The report found that 98pc of government primary schools do not have ramps for disabled students and 96pc do not have disabled-friendly toilets.

Regarding the progress and challenges to Article 25-A of the Constitution, as well as progress towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, the report said the government has endorsed and is committed to meeting the SDGs by 2030 to end poverty with an educationally entitled society as elaborated in SDG-4, its seven targets and three means of implementation.

The report said Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan and Punjab have recorded a slim annual increase in enrolment – between 1pc and 2pc.

The report also found a decline in the number of children enrolled in private schools; 23pc of children between six and 16 were enrolled in private schools in 2019, compared to 30pc in 2014. The report said the shift to government and public sector schools increased the enrolment share from 70pc in 2014 to 77pc in 2019.

The report said that the attendance of teachers in public and private schools stood at 89pc on the day of the survey. Private school teachers were reported to have better qualifications at graduate levels – 40pc compared to 33pc in government schools; however, a when it came to masters qualifications a larger percentage of public sector teachers had higher qualifications than their private school counterparts.

The report said that multi-grade classrooms highlight teacher shortages.

Published in Dawn, February 11th, 2020

https://www.dawn.com/news/1533744/quality-of-education-remains-a-concern-in-rural-districts-report

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